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Explain Linux Kernel

-----------Linux Kernel Defination ---------
It is a central component of any operating system.
Is works as a bridge between Hardware and operating system.
We also call kernel as a heart of operating system.
Linux kernel developed by Linus Torvalds when he was studying his graduation in University of Helsinki, Finland. At that time a UNIX like operating system was used within university called Minix and it has not allowed to use outside of University.
Therefore Linus Torvalds started programming of Linux kernel during his study time and its name was monolithic kernel.

Linus Torvalds started kernel versioning with version 0.01 in testing phase as it was first release but it was never announced publicly.
Later on when kernel was finally developed, he publicly announced it's 2nd release 0.02 publicly on 5th Oct, 1991.

Mainly Kernel found in many Linux OS:
- Ubuntu, cantos, red hat OS etc

It has many previous version:
1.0, 1.1
2.0, 2.1, 
3.x, 4.x
5.6 - as latest on current date.

The Linux developer continuously doing programming on new kernel version to fix the security bugs and new additional settings related to OS and Hardware.

Linux kernel basics functions are:
1. Memory Management
Kernel manages all the instruction given by user using application and what amount of memory a application is require when it request. Kernel accept the user request for memory management and it allocated to the application of available memory resource and it keeps all the track of Memory.

2. Process Management
A kernel manages all the application process request when a user request and it allocated the available amount of central processing unit to the application and kernel understand all the process using its process id.  

3. Device driver
When a user try to install a new driver or package of system, it is a kernel who check whether it is compatible with Hardware and OS or not.

4. Resource allocation
As Linux based OS is a manageable Operating system, so you can manages all the hardware resource accordingly and allocate the specific amount of hardware resources to the specific services or process. 

5. I/O Device Management 
In computer there a so many hardware and peripherals components available, it's all functionality and compatibility managed by kernel. 

As a Linux Administrator you should understand how and where Linux kernel is by default install on Linux OS:
In Ubuntu Linux OS by default kernel install in booting partition of /boot directory named as vmlinuz.

$ ls -l /boot/
penguin@penguin-virtual-machine:~$ ls -l /boot/

total 66896
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  1536934 Apr 24  2018 abi-4.15.0-20-generic
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   216807 Apr 24  2018 config-4.15.0-20-generic
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root     4096 May 10 03:31 grub
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 53887955 May 17 15:16 initrd.img-4.15.0-20-generic
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   182704 Jan 28  2016 memtest86+.bin
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   184380 Jan 28  2016 memtest86+.elf
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   184840 Jan 28  2016 memtest86+_multiboot.bin
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root        0 Apr 24  2018 retpoline-4.15.0-20-generic
-rw------- 1 root root  4038188 Apr 24  2018 System.map-4.15.0-20-generic
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  8249080 Apr 27  2018 vmlinuz-4.15.0-20-generic

How to check current kernel version of any Linux OS
$ uname -r

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